Please excuse the bad photo, but I think it does go to show just how badly our Chestnut trees are being affected by this dreadful insect; Cynips.
Almost every young bit of growth has a 'gall' made by this tiny Wasp, and it's killing the trees.
I cannot stress firmly enough the significance of the Chestnut tree to this area. Obviously it bears the nuts themselves, but also the wood is used for parquet flooring, house heating, and tannin extraction, and without the trees we would have no Cèpes (Bolitus edulis). The Chestnut tree means an awful lot to an awful lot of people.
Trials are taking place of introducing other insects to attack Cynips, but by the look of the above, they don't seem to be making much inroad.
A very depressing prospect.